Cooling is the process of reducing the temperature of a substance or environment below the volume temperature surrounding it and removing heat to store it thereon. Generally cooling; below the ambient temperature. Another Define; Cooling is the transfer of heat from one location to another, keeping the temperature at that temperature below the ambient temperature. The cooling process was used for air conditioning between ambient temperature and 1̊C, for commercial use for cold storage between 10 ̊C and -40 ̊C and for industrial purposes at various temperatures. One of the most important requirements is a comfortable environment. This requires a temperature below ambient temperature in the summer, which is provided by cooling machines.
Refrigeration is not only a part of air conditioning, but it is also used for the maintenance of basic needs (food, medicine, waste, cosmetics, etc.) required for humans . Humanity, the application of cooling in daily life BC. It dates back to 1000 years. They used it for cooling during the warm seasons by keeping the snow and ice formed during the winter. Air conditioning and cooling are indispensable parts of human life .
S grinding Definition and history of the most simple and oldest cooling principle, the nature in cold regions maintaining induced and as snow and ice, their hot or heat by placing the taken place to the desired cooling was carried out. The method of use for cooling purposes during the warm seasons by preserving the snow and ice occurring in winter months. It has been practiced since 1000 years. For the first time in the history of human existence, the Chinese used cooling. They broke the ice of frozen lakes and threw them into large wells and used them by removing the ice patterns that were compressed in summer. The Romans and Greeks buried the big cubes with water and buried them in the night, cooled the surface of the earth and cooled the cubes. The Egyptians found that liquids in earthenware containers, which were placed in such a way that they could see the open sky at night, could be cooled. This type of cooling is achieved by utilizing the temperature of the sky in the darkness at absolute zero (-273˚C) and the transmission of heat to the sky by radiation .
Emperor Nero , the sun has been protected from the influence of the wall to make room in this room has been isolated and straw allows the storage of fruits and vegetables for a long time. The first big ice sale for commercial purposes started on February 10, 1806 when Frederic TUDOR took 130 tons of ice flour to Favorit by Antil Islands . In spite of his first adventure, he found that this negativity was due to storage, and in fact there were huge gains in the ice business. He even sold ice to other countries. The nature of ice-cooling, which nature has bestowed, was extensively utilized until the 1880s. As it is a fact that the cooling method obtained by ice and snow cannot provide practical and cheap cooling in terms of time and place , researches have started on cooling techniques with mechanical tools and devices. Glasgow University in 1755. Professor Dr . William Cullen , when the ether hand to take the result of evaporation occurring in the first place, feeling that cool hand laid the foundation k cooling.
Dr. William Cullen that he based lai, in the year 1775 there have produced the ice-making machine based on the principle akum, but have stayed and could not be developed as laboratory instruments. Many scientists have also built ice machines with this principle but have not entered the industry because they are very expensive and large in size. In 1792, a group of explorers led by a Norwegian named Pellas set up camp near the Lena River in Northern Siberia , travelers who took shelter in their tents to protect themselves from freezing cold , went out to the dogs, saw the dogs sniffing the snow and bursting under the snow. they see the pristine head. They clean the ice that covers the body of the giant mammoth and cut a piece of meat. Mammoth t when cut meat eater travelers to disrupt cook a piece of meat they realize that it is not ul.
This story is a real example of how nutrients can be stored for a long time in a cold environment. After hearing this story, scientists began to give importance to the cooling business again after 1792 . In 1834, an American engineer named Jakop PERKINS patented a reciprocating cooling machine with ether in London. For thirty years this principle running machine made, electricity has also focused on a machine running in no place, and in 1858 the French Ferdinand CARRE absorption in the year bulmuştur.1886 the system engineer Windhausen by running system with CO2 gas at -80 ° C was achieved at low temperatures. After this date, the ice industry developed and the houses started to store foodstuffs with ice. In 1910, the first small refrigerator was built by JM Larsen , but it did not hold much since it was not automatic. In 1918 the Kelvinator company launched its first automatic refrigerator .
In 1930, R-12 gas was discovered and the foundation of CFC refrigerants was laid. In 1935, HC-based fluids were developed by finding R-22 refrigerant. In 1989, R-134 A and R-123 refrigerants were found to develop HFC-based fluids that did not damage the ozone layer. At the beginning of the 1990s, dual and triple alternative refrigerant mixtures were developed to replace R-22 and R-502. Since the 90s , the refrigeration technology has been continuously developing and has become a constant part of life in today’s environment.